Wendell Nope Police K-9 Pages
Reality-Based Patrol Dog (PSP-1)

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PSP-1 is an abbreviation for the German word "Polizeispuerhundpruefung" which, translated into English is "Police Patrol Dog Examination." The PSP-1 has been used for over 50 years as a performance standard for federal, state, and military agencies worldwide. This version of the PSP-1 Rules has been adapted for certification and is not compatible for competition.

Reality-Based PSP-1

The following text is the Reality-based format, presented here to offer K-9 Officers a certification option that is both efficient and humane, adhering to high professional standards while considering civil rights issues. These guidelines are also comparable to the Utah Department of Public Safety Peace Officer Standards and Training K-9 Program.

The skills outlined herein are considered important for the seasoned/veteran Patrol Dog. However, if an Agency or Handler does not perceive the need for all the K-9 skills listed within the PSP-1, there is one certification option available.

  1. A Handler or Agency may participate in the following skills and achieve an internationally-accepted certification which is designated by the acronym PSP-1.

    1. Shots Fired Scenario

    2. Tracking Scenario

    3. Evidence Search Scenario

    4. Building Search Scenario

    5. Open Area Search Scenario

    6. Apprehend a Suspect In-Sight Scenario

    7. Recapture an Escaping Prisoner Scenario

    8. Apprehend a Hostile Suspect Scenario

    9. Tactical Windscenting Scenario

    10. Pursuit Out of Sight Scenario

  2. A Handler or Agency may participate in the following skills and achieve an internationally-accepted certification which is designated by the acronym DH.

    1. Shots Fired Scenario

    2. Building Search Scenario

    3. Open Area Search Scenario

    4. Apprehend a Suspect In-Sight Scenario

    5. Recapture an Escaping Prisoner Scenario

    6. Apprehend a Hostile Suspect Scenario

    7. Recapture an Escaping Prisoner Scenario

    8. Apprehend a Hostile Suspect Scenario

    9. Tactical Windscenting Scenario

    10. Pursuit Out of Sight Scenario

  1. The skills favorable for successful deployment of a Patrol Dog are recognized within three categories.

    1. Scentwork

      1. Some Agencies or Handlers opt not to train and/or deploy a Patrol Dog in Tracking or Evidence Search. Accordingly and for certification purposes, Scentwork skills shall be considered optional.

    2. Obedience-Agility

      1. Obedience is a critical skill which must be manifested in a reliable manner. During training, only procedures which are approved and humane may be utilized. During deployment, conditions beyond the Handler's control may arise which require extreme control measures. An example is recalling an exhausted Dog to the Handler after it has engaged a combative perpetrator.

      2. Agility is an important skill which is necessary to confidently attempt to negotiate strenuous obstacles, such as privacy fences.

    3. Apprehension

      1. The Dog can be successfully trained to an appropriate skill level by a qualified Patrol Dog Handler or Instructor. The competency can then be evaluated and declared by a qualified PSP-1 Judge.

  2. These Reality-Based PSP-1 performance objectives were validated at a PSP Judges Collegium held 25 March 1998 in Salt Lake City, Utah, presided over by EPHK Alfred Maciejewski of the German Police. The PSP-1 Apprehension scenarios may be performed by a muzzled or unmuzzled K-9, to establish realism. If the K-9 is muzzled, the simulated suspects shall have no protective clothing, which approximates as closely as possible the conditions a Patrol Dog will experience in actual deployments. A Dog which does not perform well while muzzled shall not be penalized for its muzzle-sensitivity when being evaluated for certification. The Apprehension scenarios may be performed by an unmuzzled Dog, but in this case the simulated suspect shall have sufficient protective clothing on to ensure personal safety from receiving an actual bite injury.

  3. The Patrol Dog evaluation shall be concluded within a reasonable length of time after it is begun. Most evaluations may be concluded within 24 hours, however, climate conditions, injuries, etc. may cause delays. This is to establish that the Dog's mental and physical endurance are sufficient to withstand the rigors of active service.

  4. The Handler/Department of a PSP-compatible Certified Detector Dog (PSP-2, etc.) with current certification status may substitute that Detector Dog's grade for the Patrol Dog Scentwork phase grade.

  5. A certification is an official police function. Accordingly, official uniforms shall be worn by any Handler presenting a Dog for an examination. Handlers are expected to display appropriate tactical skills during the course of the examination. All collars, harness, etc. worn by the dog shall be approved by the Judge prior to an examination.

  6. In the event a Handler or Dog does not exhibit suitable skill during an examination, no certification shall be issued at that time. A re-take of certain elements may be permitted, at the Judge's discretion. If elements are re-taken, they must be examined within the "reasonable-time" constraint. The entire examination may be re-taken if desired, after a period of time to be established by the respective Judge or Agency.

  7. The Patrol Dog Judge shall issue a weapon (pistol, knife, etc.) to the perpetrator in at least one of the apprehension exercises. The weapon shall be carried such that it can be discovered only by a careful frisk.

  8. No portion of these performance objectives should be construed to suggest a restriction against participating in other types of Dog Trials, so long as the event carries significant benefit to the Dog's official function. Handlers should exercise caution when determining whether or not to participate in such Trials. Handlers should seek competent input from administrators or other experienced Handlers or Trainers as to the degree of benefit versus the risk.

  9. In the interest of equity for all certificants, the following should be ensured during an examination:

    1. All scenarios are deployed within a reasonable time frame;

    2. All simulated suspects are strangers to the Dog; and

    3. All locations utilized in the scenarios are foreign to the Dog.

  10. Each DPO Reality-Based examination shall begin with the Shots Fired Scenario to establish the presence of certain critical skills. Then the Patrol Dog Judge may determine the order of the remaining scenarios. A Dog which does not defend its Handler sufficiently or exhibits gunshyness or lacks suitable skill of overall obedience shall not continue past that point in the examination.

  11. Voice commands or hand signals are permitted. Repeating a command or a signal is permitted only if it is evident the Dog did not hear or see it or if it is integral to the exercise. The Judge shall determine the appropriateness of the action. Commands or signals other than those declared as official shall be considered Handler Help. Excessively loud commands, objects, and food used as motivations are not professional and are not allowed. The Dog should respond to commands in a professional manner.

  12. The Handler shall act in a professional manner at all times during the examination. Questions and clarifications may be directed to the Patrol Dog Judge at any appropriate time.

  13. The Patrol Dog Judge shall issue a weapon (pistol, knife, etc.) to the simulated suspect in at least one of the apprehension scenarios. The weapon shall be carried such that it can be discovered only by a careful frisk. The Handler is expected to find all weapons thus assigned and failure to do so shall be grounds for withholding the certification from the Handler.

  14. The Patrol Dog Handler and Dog form an operational team. Therefore, a Dog is to be examined with the respective Handler it is to be deployed with.

  15. The Patrol Dog must achieve an overall skill rating of at least "Suitable" in each scenario to be declared serviceable. Additionally, the Dog must also achieve a skill level rating of "Suitable" in each of the following critical behaviors:

    1. Detaining a submissive person;

    2. Subduing a furtive, hostile or fleeing person;

    3. Releasing a person on command;

    4. Indicating the presence of a person and evidence;

    5. Disengaging upon command;

    6. Over-ride Command;

    7. Tactical Release; and

    8. Emergency Release.

  16. The Patrol Dog must achieve a skill rating of "Pass" in the following skills, which are evaluated on a Pass-Fail basis:

    1. Sociability;

    2. Gunfire; and

    3. Pain Tolerance.

Definitions of Behavior

  1. Tracking: Tracking may consist of any of three behaviors.

    1. Precision Tracking is observed when the Dog follows the path of a person by focusing on footsteps; the Dog is functioning primarily in Tracking Drive; the ideal speed is a comfortable walking speed of the Handler.

    2. Street Tracking is observed when the Dog follows the path of a person by focusing on footsteps or body odor, whichever is providing the dominant scent; the Dog is functioning in a combination of Tracking Drive and Air Scent Drive; the ideal speed is a comfortable walking/jogging speed of the Handler.

    3. Trailing is observed when the Dog follows the path of a person by focusing on body odor; the Dog is functioning primarily in Air Scent Drive; the ideal speed is a comfortable jogging speed of the Handler.

  2. Heel: The Dog shall accompany the Handler willingly and attentively, keeping its shoulder in line with the Handler's torso. Forging or lagging, wide or crowding behavior is faulty. Only at a change of pace may the Handler issue an additional command or signal. The normal and fast paces shall be distinctly different.

  3. Sit: If the Handler halts, the Dog shall, without command or signal, sit immediately in the Heel position. The Handler shall not move in order to favor the Dog's position, but rather, the Dog shall position itself according to the Handler.

  4. Down: If the Handler commands or signals the Dog to Down, it shall comply immediately. If this occurs during Heeling, the Dog shall lie parallel to the Handler. If this occurs during an apprehension task i.e., Detaining, Pursuit, etc., the Dog shall lie facing the relevant person.

  5. Recall: If the Handler Recalls the Dog, it shall respond immediately and run at top speed to the Handler. Either the "Front" or the "Heel/Finish" is prescribed for a Recall, depending on the verbal/silent command given by the Handler.

  6. Jump/Climb: If the Handler commands or signals the Dog to jump/climb an obstacle, it should respond immediately. When the Dog is exiting an obstacle it has had to climb, it should also attempt to climb down, rather than just jump off. This is to diminish the risk of a shoulder injury.

  7. Stand in Place: If the Handler commands or signals the Dog to stand in place (lifted over a fence, remain in car, vet inspection, etc.), it should respond immediately.

  8. Behavior in Public: If the Handler walks through a group of people, the Dog should remain at Heel - neutral and safe to the people. Touching or sniffing is faulty. The Handler shall ensure sufficient space between the Dog and others. This neutral and safe demeanor shall be maintained, even if the Handler speaks or a person speaks to the Handler.

  9. Surveillance: If the Handler assumes a Surveillance position with the Dog, the prescribed posture shall be a kneeling Handler beside a sitting Dog or a prone Handler beside a downed dog, whichever is appropriate. For examination purposes, the Handler may hold the Dog by the collar. The Dog shall be attentive to the terrain being surveilled and shall remain quiet and attentive, even if the Handler addresses a person.

  10. Pursuit: If the Handler commands or signals the Dog to Pursue a person, the Dog shall respond immediately by running at top speed.

  11. Suspect Search: If the Handler initiates a Suspect Search, s/he shall begin it from the Heel position and off-leash. The Dog shall search as commanded or signaled, purposefully, intensely, and systematically. The command or signal may be issued together with the name of the Dog. The Handler may give additional commands or signals as the Dog is directed to each new quadrant of the search area.

  12. Pinpointing (aka Finding): If a Patrol Dog is deployed on a search for a person or criminal evidence, it shall do so as described herein. If it perceives odor from a person or evidence, it shall immediately pinpoint the source of the odor. Pinpointing differs from Searching in that it is evaluated as independent behavior manifested by the Dog, whereas Searching is a Handler-controlled behavior.

  13. Suspect Indication: If a Patrol Dog locates a passive, submissive or inaccesible suspect while searching, it shall respond by immediately and persistently barking to advise the Handler of the exact location. The barking should give the impression that the Dog is calling for backup (Handler) and not that the Dog is attempting to induce the suspect to move, flinch, or flush out of his/her location.

  14. Evidence Indication: If a Patrol Dog locates evidence while searching, it shall respond by immediately assuming a posture of down, sit, or stand and cease further searching. The evidence shall not be contaminated by the dog in any way.

  15. Detaining a Passive Person: If a Patrol Dog locates a passive person while searching, it shall immediately, intensely, and persistently hold the person without physical contact. The Dog may assume a posture of sitting, standing, downing or circling to aid in the task. A Detaining Patrol Dog shall not invade the passive person's body space. Optimal distance is 1-2 meters. Should the Dog Detain from behind the suspect's hiding place or circle the entire location, this is not faulty. For evaluation purposes, if a muzzled Detaining Dog bumps a passive person it shall be assumed to have bitten. Further, if an unmuzzled Dog bites a passive person, it is considered an escalation of force initiated by the dog.

  16. Richey Technique: A Handler may opt to strategically omit an official announcement prior to deploying a Patrol Dog to deal with a suspect. This might occur if the Handler perceives that the announcement may, of itself, create a substantial risk to the Handler and/or others, or the announcement may create an opportunity for a high-threat-level suspect to evade capture. In this case, no announcement is given before deployment and the dog assumes a Release/Guard posture at the moment the Handler issues lawful orders to the suspect. This technique is named after Jon Richey of the Salt Lake City Police Department, who perfected its training/deployment process.

    1. A proper Richey Technique is as follows. The Handler quietly keys the Dog on the suspect. Without an announcement, s/he deploys the Dog. The Dog runs at top speed toward the suspect. As the Dog approaches to about 10 meters distance, the Handler yells out a lawful order, such as "Police! Stay Still!" The Dog closes to within about 1-2 meters and goes into a Release/Guard posture.

  17. Over-ride Command or "Dial Technique": A Patrol Dog trained to Detain or Guard a passive suspect holds and restricts that person without physical contact. Refer to Detaining and Guarding. A Dog lacks the mental faculties to recognize a slow yet furtive movement and normally does not then Engage, even though it may be appropriate to do so. A Handler, however, may recognize a slow movement as being furtive and may decide to have the Dog Engage the suspect. This may also be described as an "Override" command for a Detaining or Guarding Patrol Dog. The override command is also beneficial when the Handler decides to have a pursuing Dog automatically Engage a suspect, even if motionless. This technique is named after Wayne Dial of the Salt Lake County Sheriff Office, who perfected its training process.

    1. A proper Dial Technique is as follows. The Dog is Pursuing, Detaining, or Guarding when the Handler issues the override command. If Pursuing, the Dog Engages without hesitation as it approaches; if Detaining or Guarding, the Dog Engages immediately upon hearing the command. This command overrides any other trained behavior and causes the Dog to Engage.

  18. Subduing a Fleeing Person: If a Patrol Dog engages a fleeing person while searching or pursuing, it shall exhibit considerable pain compliance through biting to subdue. Considerable combat behavior should enhance the pain compliance. If the Dog is muzzled, as in training or certification, intense bumping and wrestling should be evident.

  19. Subduing a Hostile Person: If a Patrol Dog engages a hostile person while searching or pursuing, it shall exhibit considerable pain compliance through biting to subdue. Considerable combat behavior should enhance the pain compliance. If the Dog is muzzled, as in training or certification, intense bumping and wrestling should be evident.

  20. Verbal Release: If a Handler commands a Patrol Dog to Release, it shall respond by

    1. Immediately release primary control of the subject, whether Engaged or Detaining;

    2. Assume a position, i.e., sit/stand/down/return

      1. Sit at a distance out of suspect striking range yet close enough to react efficiently to a furtive movement or an over-ride command, optimal distance is 3-6 feet

      2. Stand at a distance out of suspect striking range yet close enough to react efficiently to a furtive movement or an over-ride command, optimal distance is 3-6 feet

      3. Down at a distance out of suspect striking range yet close enough to react efficiently to a furtive movement or an over-ride command, optimal distance is 3-6 feet

      4. Return to the Heel position;

    3. Remain quiet; and

    4. Remain alert for furtive movement.

    5. A proper Verbal Release is as follows. On a lawful order to a compliant suspect, such as "Stay Still" or "Freeze," the Dog shall immediately let go, if Engaged. If a position command is given such as "Heel" the Dog shall immediately respond. It should then be alert and quiet, ready to react to a furtive movement. Reasonable human behavior from the suspect shall be tolerated by the Dog when commanded to Release. It should not Engage, for example, if the suspect merely slumps or cries out. If the Dog assumes a position near the suspect, it should be out of impact weapon striking range and personal body space, yet close enough to react efficiently to a furtive movement or an over-ride command.

  21. Tactical Release: A Tactical Release is a maneuver which may be appropriate when there is considerable physical activity between the subject, the Handler, or even Backup Officers during a capture. It may be utilized anytime the Handler perceives that the Dog may misinterpret the actions of any of the above. It is a maneuver intended to diminish the possibility of unintended injury to the Subject, Handler, or Backup Officers. It is a form of Verbal Release, with the added element of physical control of the Dog.

    1. A proper Tactical Release is as follows.

      1. Handler gains control of the Dog's head;

      2. Handler announces to Arrest Team "Tactical Release";

      3. Handler gives Verbal Release to Dog;

      4. Dog responds to Handler within three seconds;

      5. Handler lifts Dog clear of Subject and Arrest Team;

      6. Handler announces to arrest Team "Dog Off";

      7. Handler moves Dog away from Team;

      8. Handler/Dog assume backup position; and

      9. Dog remains alert and quiet, ready to Engage again.

  22. Emergency Release: An Emergency Release is a maneuver which may be appropriate when the Handler perceives an exigent circumstance during a capture. For example, a subject may appear unconscious or catatonic, a Backup Officer inadvertently is bitten, or some other situation in which life-threatening conditions exist AND the subject is obviously compliant or non-threatening.

    1. A proper Emergency Release is as follows:

    1. The Kerby Technique - rigid hands at throat and at base of skull.

      1. The Handler approaches the Dog with his/her hands rigid and flat ... place one hand at the top of the throat and the other at the base of the skull ... press inward firmly with both hands to secure the Dog's head ... squeeze tightly and hold on as the Dog opens its mouth ... gently maneuver the Dog's mouth away from the bite-site ... firmly hold onto the Dog's head to prevent an inadvertent secondary bite ... move the Dog away from the person in a safe manner ... be aware that the Dog may slip into Survival Drive during the procedure ... help the Dog to recover from the Kerby Emergency Release by using a calming voice.

    2. The Lentz Technique - conventional choke-hold.

      1. The Handler approaches the Dog in a manner to effectively get the Dog's throat positioned in the crook of one arm ... place the other arm such that the Dog's neck is now in the conventional choke-hold position ... squeeze tightly and hold on as the Dog opens its mouth ... gently maneuver the Dog's mouth away from the bite-site ... firmly hold onto the Dog's head to prevent an inadvertent secondary bite ... move the Dog away from the person in a safe manner ... be aware that the Dog may slip into Survival Drive during the procedure ... help the Dog to recover from the Lentz Emergency Release by using a calming voice.

    3. The Nope Technique - tightened chain collar at top of throat.

      1. The Handler approaches the Dog with his/her hands ready to grasp the chain collar at each side of the Dog's neck ... Grasp the collar such that the fingers are next to the Dog's neck ... slide the collar as far forward as possible so that it is high on the Dog's neck but still on the windpipe ... squeeze the collar tightly such that the Dog's air supply is completely shut off ... hold on tightly as the Dog opens its mouth ... gently maneuver the Dog's mouth away from the bite-site ... firmly hold the Dog's head to prevent an inadvertent secondary bite ... move the Dog away from the person in a safe manner ... be aware that the Dog may slip into Survival Drive during the procedure ... help the Dog to recover from the Kerby Emergency Release by using a calming voice.

  23. Disengage: If a Patrol Dog is Pursuing or Engaging a person, the Handler may deem it appropriate to completely "shut down" the Dog from its task, due to exigent circumstances. The Disengage behavior is not a "Release," but rather, a total task shutdown. Any reasonable behavior is acceptable for a Disengage, such as a "Down en route" or a "Recall to Handler." Four exigent circumstances may prompt the Handler to Disengage the Dog:

    1. Wrong "Target ID" during a deployment;

    2. The Dog is ineffective in controlling or subduing a suspect, perhaps due to chemical influences on the suspect and further deployment is not strategically valuable;

    3. The suspect is non-compliant to lawful orders due to extreme fear or a state of panic to the degree of loss of sensibility, and

      1. not an overt threat to the Handler or another person, or

      2. further deployment is not strategically valuable; or

      3. further deployment will substantially increase the degree of injury to the suspect ... a rule of thumb for initiating a Disengage in this case is, "When tissue damage supercedes pain compliance - Disengage!"

      4. The Dog is in danger and the overall circumstances do not merit leaving the Dog on-task.

        1. The Dog is in danger from an overly-hostile subject.

        2. The Dog is in danger from a suspect wielding a deadly force instrument.

        3. The Dog is in danger from the environment, i.e., pursuing a suspect across a busy street.

    4. A proper Disengage is as follows. The Dog is Pursuing or Engaged when the Handler issues the Disengage command. If Pursuing, the Dog shuts down from its Pursuit; if Engaging, the Dog shuts down immediately upon hearing the command. In either case, the Dog may assume a position away from the Handler or may be recalled to the Handler. This Disengage command overrides any other trained behavior and causes the Dog to shut down. An officer of agency may choose what action the Dog takes after the command; for example, lay down or return to the Heel position once shutting down. It is always an option to re-deploy the Dog if desired.

  24. Frisk: If a Handler conducts a frisk of a suspect subsequent to a Release command to the Dog, the suspect may be instructed to step back or the Dog may be commanded to the Heel position, whichever is more favorable. Regardless of where placed, the Dog shall remain quiet and attentive to the suspect, prepared to respond to a furtive movement or Over-ride command. The Frisk behavior, for examination purposes, ends when the Handler returns to the Dog and begins the next task. If the Handler deems it appropriate to have a Backup Officer conduct the frisk, the dog will be evaluated according to the same criteria, except that the Handler may or may not be at the Heel position.

  25. Transport: If a Handler initiates a Transport of a suspect in custody, the Dog shall respond by remaining at the Heel position, attentive to the suspect. The Front Transport is optimal and performed at a distance of about three meters. The Handler shall issue appropriate commands to direct the arrestee's movements. For examination purposes, the Transport is ended when the arrestee has gone about five meters once remanded. If the Handler deems it appropriate to have a Backup Officer conduct a side transport, the Handler shall take the same position behind the arrestee and the dog will be evaluated according to the same criteria.

  26. Dismiss/Remand: If a Handler inadvertently encounters a person not a suspect, during a deployment, s/he may choose to Dismiss the person from the area without further investigation. If a Handler is assisted by a backup officer once a capture is effected, s/he may choose to Remand the arrestee to the backup officer. For examination purposes, both behaviors appear identical. Once a Dismiss or Remand is initiated, the Dog's behavior is evaluated while the person/suspect moves a minimum of five paces, to determine if the Dog remains stable during this function.

  27. Pain Tolerance: Pain Tolerance or "Hardness" is a critical issue for the Patrol Dog in modern society. It has been discovered by sad experience that some suspects vigorously resist the deployment of a Patrol Dog to subdue them and even attempt to disable the Dog. Therefore, it is mandatory that the Dog exhibit considerable pain tolerance in order to successfully Engage and Subdue suspects. For examination purposes, pain tolerance is evaluated by mentally intimidating and physically stinging the Dog. Any physical strikes with a simulated weapon should be carefully aimed for the less-sensitive portions of its body, such as the rib cage.

  28. Gunsureness: Gunsureness is a critical issue for the Patrol Dog in modern society. The incidence of officer-involved shootings has increased dramatically over the years, requiring that a Patrol Dog is more stable than ever. The optimal behavior is "Gunfire-sure," however, a Dog that is "Gunfire-sensitive" yet can recover and remain controllable may be allowed. "Gunfire-shy" dogs should not function as Patrol Dogs.

Reality-Based Scenarios

  1. Shots Fired Scenario ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate multiple Patrol Dog critical skills in a single scenario to assure the certificant is sufficiently prepared to challenge the remainder of the evaluation. Of particular interest are the following behaviors.

    1. Sociability.

    2. Discipline/Control.

    3. Gunsureness.

    4. Handler Protection (Combat/Defense skill).

    5. Pain Tolerance.

    6. Disengage.

    7. Handler Skill.

    The Handler and Dog shall be deployed in this scenario via radio communications. Once the first radio transmission is received, the scenario evaluation begins. They shall first be dispatched to report to an on-scene officer (Evaluator) for a deployment briefing. After being briefed, the Handler shall then command or signal the Dog to Heel as s/he advances approximately 40 meters to meet a group of three Handlers and Dogs who are part of the scenario. At approximately the midpoint, a series of obstacles shall be encountered which will require the Handler and Dog to execute at least one right turn and one left turn to negotiate.

    Upon reaching the other Handlers and Dogs, the Handler shall be advised to take a position at the front of the group. S/He shall Heel in serpentine fashion through the group of Handlers whose Dogs are lying at their sides.

    Upon arriving at the front of the group, the Handler shall be dispatched to advance quickly to another scenario position and standby. S/he shall leave the group and jog to the assigned position. While en route, the Handler and Dog shall have to negotiate a (simulated) fence which is about one meter high, and then continue jogging. At a point beyond the fence, the Handler shall receive a dispatch to go to an assigned location and standby for further communication.

    A short time after the Handler arrives at the location, two shots (blank gun) shall be fired from a designated location in the crime scene. The Handler shall not be advised whether these are suspect or police rounds. S/he shall find the nearest cover and take a safe position.

    Next, the Handler shall observe a walking line of at least three people. The Handler and Dog shall move out, walk toward the people and, when about five meters beyond, shall turn back toward them. S/he shall overtake the group and order them to halt. S/he shall also halt at a distance of about three meters and face the group. S/he shall then conduct a field interview with each person.

    One of these persons will assault the Handler while being interviewed. The Handler shall not know ahead of time which person will become hostile. The Handler shall take evasive action and the Dog must defend its Handler immediately and attempt to subdue. The Handler shall deal with the assault as tactically as possible, with special emphasis on not losing focus on the other persons in the group, giving lawful orders as appropriate. The attacker shall suddenly brandish an impact weapon and inflict at least two strikes on the Dog.

    The Dog shall continue attempting to subdue the attacker, in spite of the blows, until s/he begins to exhibit a distinct change of behavior. S/he shall clearly want to give up and show signs of extreme fear. S/he shall make defensive gestures toward the Dog, as if trying to protect him/herself from further injury. At this point the Handler shall Disengage the Dog. When the Dog Disengages, the person shall continue to act fearful. The actions shall be vigorous and loud, but clearly fearful. S/he will not stand still, but neither will s/he be threatening. Once the Dog Disengages, the Handler shall take control of the group once more and make such radio transmissions as are appropriate. At this point the Dog shall remain alert and quiet while the Handler completes the frisk and places the individual in custody.

    The Handler shall remand the arrestee to the responding backup officer (Evaluator) and then complete the interview of the other persons. The scenario shall not be concluded until all persons have been interviewed, in the event the first or second person commits the assault.

    Procedures.

    1. The Dog should be muzzled and shall be off-leash during this scenario, up to the point where three persons are field interviewed. The Dog shall be unmuzzled for this phase. Only in this manner can a proper Disengage be evaluated.

    2. The group of Handlers and their muzzled Dogs shall be positioned about 10 feet apart. These Dogs shall be maintained on-leash.

    3. After the Handler and Dog have exited the group, they are excused from the immediate area.

    4. The hurdle obstacle shall be a chain-link or similar-type fence. It shall be at least one meter high and see-through. The Dog shall demonstrate a Stand-in-Place, Sit-in-Place, or Down-in-Place on command after it jumps the hurdle. The Handler shall then negotiate the same obstacle before resuming movement in the scenario.

    5. The firearm used to evaluate gunsureness should be about as loud as a 9mm handgun. The distance from gun to Dog should be at least 20 meters.

    6. The group to be interviewed shall be moving in a line facing and parallel to the Handler and Dog. They shall be about two meters to the side of the approaching Handler and Dog. The members of the group should be about three meters behind each other. They shall be moving at a walking speed.

    7. The strikes to the Dog shall be of medium intensity on the less sensitive parts of the body.

  2. Tracking Scenario ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for Tracking suspects or victims, including finding evidence dropped along the way.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to track a person's travel route. An investigative scene, including an object of evidence (car, briefcase, etc.) marks the starting point of the track. The person shall depart from the object and travel about 200 meters to a hiding spot. Along the way s/he shall make two realistic turns and drop one item of realistic evidence. The Handler shall deploy the Dog to cast about for the track, then follow it. The Dog shall Indicate the evidence, as well as the passive hidden person.

    Procedures.

    1. The Judge shall determine the place where the initial evidence object is to be placed.

    2. A "scentpad" is not permitted. Footprints should not be visible.

    3. The tracklayer shall walk in a natural manner and wear ordinary shoes. S/he is forbidden from making abnormal footfalls.

    4. The track shall not be a defined pattern and shall be laid reasonable to the lay of the land. Unnaturally sharp or acute-angle turns are not realistic and not appropriate for the examination. Obtuse-angle turns are permitted.

    5. The evidence items shall not be larger than 10" and shall be similar color as the terrain.

    6. The evidence shall be thoroughly permeated with human odor.

    7. The evidence may be placed anywhere along the track, except in the first or last 20 meters.

    8. The track must have at least one change of terrain.

    9. The Handler shall not be advised whether this is a suspect track or a victim track, only that a person was seen walking away from the object and it is important to determine what the situation with the person is.

    10. The Dog may track on-leash or off-leash and at any length, long or short, with vigilant scrutiny to watch for inappropriate Handler help.

    11. The track concludes at the hiding place where the passive person is hiding. S/he may be in any position and will be totally passive and compliant when encountered.

    12. The Dog shall demonstrate an Indication on the person as defined previously.

    13. The Dog may exhibit either "precision" tracking or "street" tracking or "trailing" to accomplish this task. Neither is evaluated superior to the other. The overall evaluation shall be according to the skill of the Dog to follow/locate the person and the evidence.

  3. Criminal Evidence Search ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for searching, locating, and indicating criminal evidence or lost property.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to locate and indicate criminal evidence. The search area shall be about 800m size. The Judge shall place four contaminated realistic objects in the search area and the Dog shall be given a reasonable amount of time (10 minutes) to deploy.

    Procedures.

    1. The search area shall be realistic and typical of deployment scenarios.

    2. The Dog shall deploy unmuzzled.

    3. The Handler and Dog shall be out of sight when the objects are placed. They shall be composed of four different materials and not be over 10cm in size. The objects shall be similar color as the terrain and shall not be placed in plain sight.

    4. The objects shall be thoroughly permeated with human odor.

    5. The Handler shall inform the Judge of the Indication behavior prior to deploying the Dog. The Dog shall exhibit the same Indication behavior at all objects.

  4. Building Search ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for searching inside buildings for criminal suspects. Of particular interest is the Dog's behavior if the suspect is hidden high above the Dog's reach and also inaccessible. The intent is not only to find the suspect but stay in close proximity of the location.

    At the discretion of the Judge, a situation may develop during this scenario in which the Handler should command the Dog to over-ride its Detain, Guard, or Transport and Engage the subject. This encounter shall result in a struggle in which both the Dog and the subject are on the ground. If the encounter occurs, the subject shall be in a prone position when the Handler verbally commands the Dog to Release.

    The Handler shall issue at least two official announcements prior to deploying the Dog. After the second announcement, the Handler may deploy at will.

    When the Dog has located the suspect, it shall immediately and intensely Indicate. Upon hearing the Dog's Indication, the Handler may tactically advance to the location. When the Handler arrives at the hiding spot, s/he may take control of the situation as circumstances dictate.

    The Handler shall frisk, arrest, and transport the person to the Judge outside the building.

    Procedures.

    1. The Dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.

    2. The building shall be at least 1000 sq meters. Numerous hiding spots shall be available in the building. This is intended to ensure that the Dog's skill level may be accurately evaluated.

    3. The suspect shall be placed in a high location such that direct contact by the Dog is not possible when the find is made. The suspect may be in a standing, sitting, or prone position, according to the environment available in the building.

  5. Open Area Suspect Search ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for conducting a systematic search for suspects in large, open search areas.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to search for and locate suspects in large search areas.

    Prior to deployment, the Judge shall place a person in an area about 100m X 200m size. The person shall be lying in a prone position.

    When the Dog finds the person, it shall Indicate the location immediately to the Handler. When the Dog Indicates, the Handler shall tactically advance to the location.

    The Handler shall determine the identity of the person and discover s/he is not the suspect in question. At this time, the Handler shall dismiss the person from the search area.

    Procedures.

    1. The Dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.

    2. The search area shall have considerable undergrowth or other conditions which dramatically reduce visual abilities.

    3. The person placed in this scenario represents an innocent citizen inadvertently in the search area. S/he shall wear inconspicuous clothing and lie in a natural manner. The person shall not be visible to the Handler until the last moment.

    4. The Judge shall dictate the starting point for the deployment, after considering wind, etc., in order to provide the Dog with optimal chances for success.

    5. The Handler shall conduct a systematic search through this area.

    6. If the Dog overruns or the boundary of the search area slightly or does not go completely to the boundary during the process of searching, this is not faulty.

    7. The Handler is not required to follow an exact center-line, but rather, may follow the lay of the land during his/her advance.

  6. Pursue and Apprehend a Surrendering Suspect In Sight ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for pursuing a fleeing suspect who decides to surrender prior to the Dog's arrival. This scenario also offers several options for the Handler. Since the subject is in plain view, the Handler may choose to allow the dog to perform a Detain, Richey Maneuver, Down Enroute, or Recall to the Handler. The Gradesheet contains each category and may be evaluated according to the behavior chosen.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to pursue and subdue a suspect who is fleeing in sight.

    The Handler and Dog shall assume a Surveillance position at a point designated by the Judge.

    A suspect shall appear at a distance of about 100 meters. The Handler shall then issue two official announcements. After the first announcement, the suspect shall flee.

    After the second announcement, the Handler shall deploy the Dog. The Dog shall pursue at top speed. When the Dog is en route, the suspect shall stop and face the Dog. The surrendering behavior shall be evident and s/he shall then remain motionless. The Handler now has the option of permitting the Dog to Detain, Down-en-route, Richey Technique or Recall.

    1. Detain Option: The Dog shall do so without physical contact. When the Handler arrives at a distance of at least ten paces, s/he shall command the Dog to assume a backup position.

    2. Down-en-route Option: The Dog shall do so immediately upon receiving the command. It shall then await the Handler's approach and they shall advance together for the remainder of the distance. Upon arrival at the suspect's location, the Handler shall command the Dog to assume a backup position. To clarify, the intent of this behavior is that the Dog lay down immediately upon receiving the command and await the Handler to deploy further.

    3. Richey Technique Option: The Dog shall do so immediately upon receiving the command. It shall then await the Handler's approach while remaining at a Guard position. Upon arrival at the suspect's location, the Handler may command the Dog to assume a backup position, either at a Heel position or close to the Suspect. To clarify, the intent of this behavior is that the Dog is eventually down at a proper Guarding distance from the suspect.

    4. Recall Option: The Dog shall do so immediately upon receiving the command. It shall go to the Heel position immediately or upon subsequent command. It shall then advance with the Handler at the Heel position for the remainder of the distance. Upon arrival at the suspect's location, the Handler shall command the Dog to assume a backup position. To clarify, the intent of this behavior is that the Dog return immediately upon receiving the command and then act as a partner for the remainder of the scenario.

    It shall now remain quiet and alert, ready to respond to a furtive movement. The Handler shall then frisk, arrest, and transport the suspect back to the Judge for Remanding.

    Procedure.

    1. The Dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.

    2. The suspect shall remain passive and motionless once the surrendering behavior is exhibited. If the Detaining Dog circles or positions itself behind the suspect, s/he may turn in order to maintain a frontal view of the Dog.

  7. Recapture an Escaping Prisoner ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for recapturing escaping suspects.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to subdue an escaping arrestee.

    During a Front Transport, an arrestee attempts to escape. At the direction of the Judge, s/he shall begin running straight ahead.

    The Handler shall issue at least two official announcements prior to deploying the Dog. The Dog shall remain at Heel, even during the announcements. After the second announcement, the Handler may deploy at will.

    The Handler shall now be required to respond to a perceived emergency situation. At some point the Judge shall announce that some form of emergency exists and the Handler should take immediate control of the situation. The Handler shall perform an Emergency Release and remove the Dog from the immediate area. The scenario ends at that point.

    Procedures.

    1. The Dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.

    2. The escapee shall flee suddenly and without any other stimulation than the flight.

    3. The Dog shall Pursue at top speed, engage, and attempt to subdue the escapee. The Handler shall follow and take control of the situation as the environment dictates.

    4. If the Dog knocks the escapee down, s/he shall protect him/herself. Otherwise, the escapee shall stop running when engaged and then resist the Dog by hitting and grabbing, while facing the Dog at all times.

    5. The Handler is permitted to choose the type and form of Emergency Release s/he shall perform, as long as it comports with the intent of the maneuver.

  8. Pursue and Apprehend a Hostile Suspect In-Sight ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for pursuing and engaging suspects who attempt to thwart the Dog using intimidation.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to subdue a hostile suspect, even if s/he attempts to thwart the Dog's efforts.

    The Handler and Dog shall assume a Surveillance position as directed by the Judge. A known suspect shall appear at a distance of about 50 meters. The Handler shall then issue two official announcements to surrender. After the first announcement the suspect shall turn and flee.

    After the second announcement, the Handler shall deploy the Dog. The Dog shall pursue at top speed. When the Dog is about 30 meters distance, the suspect shall attempt to scare the Dog away by charging it, yelling, and making threatening gestures.

    The Dog shall disregard the suspect's behavior and engage with considerable intensity. It shall attempt to subdue the suspect, regardless of his/her actions. Backup officers shall then assist in the capture and the Handler shall perform a Tactical Release to prevent further possible injury.

    The suspect shall be frisked, arrested, and transported to the Judge for Remanding.

    Procedures.

    1. The Dog shall deploy unmuzzled and off-leash.

    2. The suspect shall wear suitable protective clothing such as a sleeve or bitesuit.

    3. When the suspect charges the Dog, s/he shall do so in a manner which is intended to thwart the Dog's desire to engage. The suspect shall continue to make combative movements and actions, even after the Dog has Engaged. The suspect shall stop resisting within 5-10 seconds, then exhibit an obvious desire to surrender. By now, the Handler should be nearby and shall take control of the situation as circumstances dictate.

  9. Tactical Windscenting ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the Patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for windscenting, locating, and indicating a suspect hiding in a search area.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to tactically windscent, locate, and Indicate a suspect hidden in a search area. The Handler shall deploy the Dog on a short leash across the wind current until it Indicates. The Handler shall issue at least two official announcements prior to deploying the Dog. After the second announcement, the Handler may deploy at will.

    The Dog shall then search for and find the suspect. When the Dog has located the suspect, it shall immediately and intensely Indicate. Upon hearing the Dog's Indication, the Handler may tactically advance to the location. When the Handler arrives at the hiding spot, s/he may take control of the situation as circumstances dictate.

    The Handler shall frisk, arrest, and transport the suspect to the Judge.

    Procedures

    1. The Dog shall deploy muzzled and on a short leash for the windscenting phase.

    2. The suspect shall be standing upright in a natural hiding-place which is not visible to the Handler from the windscenting phase.

    3. The scenario shall be set up such that the wind favors the windscenting Dog.

    4. Should the wind cease, the suspect shall make minimal noises which shall not be perceivable to the Handler.

  10. Pursuit and Apprehension Out of Sight ... This Scenario has been designed to evaluate the patrol Dog and Handler deployment skills for pursuing, locating, and indicating a suspect who flees and hides.

    The Handler shall deploy the Dog in a scenario which has been prepared to examine the Dog's ability to Pursue a visible fleeing suspect and locate him/her, even if s/he disappears from sight and hides.

    The Handler and Dog shall assume a Surveillance position as directed by the Judge.

    At a distance of about 100 meters, a known suspect shall appear. The Handler shall then issue two official announcements to the suspect.

    After the first announcement, the suspect shall flee out of sight and hide in a location about 30 meters beyond the view of the Handler.

    When the suspect is out of sight, the Handler shall deploy the Dog to Pursue. The Handler may follow immediately behind but shall halt at the point where the suspect disappeared.

    The Dog should Pursue at top speed to the point where the suspect disappeared. Now the Dog is expected to independently search for and locate the suspect.

    When the Dog locates the suspect, it shall immediately Indicate the location to the Handler. When the Handler hears the Dog Indicate, s/he may tactically advance to the location.

    When the Handler arrives at the location, s/he may take control of the situation as circumstances dictate. The suspect shall be frisked, arrested, and transported to the Judge for Remanding.

    Procedures

    1. The Dog shall deploy muzzled and off-leash.

    2. The suspect shall run quickly to the hiding spot, after the announcement is issued. For purposes of the examination, the suspect shall remain upright and passive during the encounter.

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