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UPOA 2011 K-9
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UPOA 2011 K-9 Pages - Expert Witness Pages - Main Page

Threat Elements
These are issues which should be articulated if encountered during an incident.


    1. Forcible entry pharmacy burglary vs. simple trespassing;

    2. As I arrived at the scene of the burglary-in-progress, I remembered that I had already responded twice to this clinic and both times the perpetrator was attempting to break into the drug cabinets. Each previous incident resulted in violence displayed towards responding officers. Considering this, I began to prepare a strategy for searching the building using known points of cover, to protect myself and backup officers from possible ambush.


    1. In-progress alarm vs. 20-minute old audible;

    2. I arrived at the department store approximately 32 minutes after the audible alarm had gone off. It was still ringing and was quite loud. I observed the rear ventilation shaft just above ground level had been pried out and was lying on the ground beside the opening. Scuff marks beneath the opening appeared to be made by shoes. I believed that someone had jimmied the cover off and gained access inside. Just then, the store owner arrived and shut off the alarm via an outside switch. He advised me he had no employees and that nobody else but him was authorized to be inside. I advised him I felt it best to go ahead and have my K-9 search the store, even though the perpetrator was likely long gone. The owner gve me the key to the rear door, which was only about eight feet from the point of entry. Deputy ________ acted as my backup and held the door open as I made three loud K-9 Announcements inside. After about 15 seconds of no response I deployed K-9 Ajax with a "Search" command. Ajax entered the doorway and began sniffing the interior. About ten seconds had gone by when I heard a loud commotion of banging around and a man's voice screaming in a high pitch. I motioned to Deputy ______ and we made a tactical entry, carefully moving towards the noises. The noises seemed to be coming from the office area and we approached very carefully. When we shined our lights in the office I observed that Ajax had a firm grip on a subject in the middle of his back just above the beltline. Ajax was strenuously attempting to subdue the subject, in spite of the man's attempts to hit him with his fists. I could see that the subject had no weapon in his hands and called Ajax to the Heel position. As soon as Ajax disengaged, the man spun around and saw us. He immediately threw his hands above his head in the classic surrender posture. I called out loudly to him to keep his hands up and face away from us. With his left hand, he pointed to his ear and said loudly, "I'm deaf - I can't hear what you're saying." His voice tone was similar to other deaf people I have heard and I suspected he might be telling the truth. I advised Deputy _____ to be ready, in case this was a ruse. I then moved my hand in front of my flashlight and motioned him to move towards us. He then said, "OK, OK, don't shoot, I give up." The subject was compliant and allowed us to handcuff and frisk him without further incident. As soon as he was secured, I began to examine him for injuries. We had to go outside the building before I could get a clear view of his back where I observed four distinct punctures and some peripheral bruising. The site was bleeding freely but not heavily. I called for EMS and they arrived within six minutes. They examined the injury and stated it was not severe enough to transport via ambulance. They stopped the bleeding and Deputy ______ advised them we were going to transport him to ________ emergency room. [This is a re-creation of an actual incident]


    1. Crime at knife-point vs. crime of stealth;

    2. When I arrived at the scene of the Domestic Violence incident, Sgt. _________ advised me the husband had slashed his wife with a large folding blade knife. The wife described it as his Deer-Skinning Knife that he carried in a belt-holster. Apparently the subject had cut her and then left the mobile home and ran northbound into the wooded area adjacent to the trailer park. Sgt. ____ asked me what I'd need to start a track. I advised that due to the obvious threat, I'd like at least three backups, one with a shotgun and another with a long gun. Within about three minutes, Officers _____, _____, and _____ met me at my vehicle for a briefing. I explained to them that this guy has a deer-skinning knife that he carries in a holster at all times. This causes me to think he is adept at using it and we all have to be very-very alert as we do the track. I stated he has already slashed his wife and shown his willingness to use deadly force.


    1. Subject using drugs at time of investigation vs. subject with non-drugged perceptions;

    2. I arrived at the scene of the Aggravated Rape call at 2335 hrs. Detective ____ was interviewing the victim and I walked up just as she said, "He is capable of anything when he's high on Meth. He even beat my sister unconscious one night when she tried to stop him from raping me like a dog. He's still down in the basement, watch y'all's selves. He brags about how he knocked a cop out one time when he got stopped for speeding in Arkansas." As I heard this description, I knew that we had to be very much on-guard as we made the approach.


    1. If shots are fired, the application of a K-9 may not be appropriate or may be delayed until it is considered a deployment strategy

    2. As I pulled up behind Trooper _____ to back him up on the DUI stop, I heard a series of shots of different caliber guns. I saw Trooper _____ taking cover behind the engine block area and returning fire in the direction of the wood-line to the east side of the road. I looked that direction and saw two muzzle-flashes and heard the two gunshots. Then everything got quiet and I could hear noises of movement through the dense brush in the woods. It sounded like the subject was fleeing further into the woods. I estimated he went in about 50 yards and stopped. Then it was totally quiet. I called over to Trooper _____ and asked if he was OK. He said, "I'm OK - I'm OK, let's hold up here for backup." I agreed and he called for support. I knew that at any moment the subject might attempt to engage us again with deadly force. I continued to scan forward and to my right along the treeline, just in case the subject tried to double-back on us. In about 12 minutes, eight units arrived and we briefed on a strategy to ....


    1. A suspect reported or believed to be armed vs. an unarmed suspect;

    2. I asked the car-jack victim if she thought the man was armed. She stated she didn't see a weapon but he told her he'd shoot her if she acted out. That being said, I opted to treat this situation as a search for a suspect possibly armed with a handgun. I explained our K-9 procedure point-for-point to the backup officers, almost verbatim from the K-9 policy on this type deployment.


    1. A suspect with history of violence vs. no history of hostility;

    2. Just before I initiated the track, dispatch advised the owner of this vehicle had a history of resisting arrest and two charges of assault on a police officer. This immediately raised my concerns that I might encounter violence of some type. I took a deep breath to settle myself and stated to the backup officers, "OK, guys ... nobody gets hurt tonight." As I gave the track command to K-9 _____, I felt a distinct disadvantage due to the fact that the subject would know where we were, before we had a chance to know where he was.


    1. A suspect hiding is attempting to evade capture, normally prior to police announcements;

    2. As I approached the salvage yard where the subject has secreted himself, I asked one of the perimter officers if anyone had issued any orders to come out. She said they had not, that they had secured the perimeter and were waiting for K-9 to arrive. As I got to a position of cover, I hoped he would surrender when I gave the K-9 Announcements.


    1. A suspect barricaded is further resisting capture, normally subsequent to police announcements;

    2. After the third K-9 Announcement, it became apparent to me that the subject was not going to come out. I knew the layout of this Jamba Juice store and it was obvious that my K-9 Announcements could be heard throughout the store. I felt he must be very determined not to be taken into custody, if he was willing to risk encountering a trained police dog. This raised my level of concern for my own safety considerably higher. I thought to ask the manager if all the employees were accounted for, in case this had been a closing-time robbery and the employee might be tied up or unconscious. The manager called the employee on the cell phone and got confirmation that she was at home. I now felt that whoever was inside was indeed the subject of this robbery.


    1. An irate or hostile suspect vs. a seemingly coherent suspect;

    2. During the course of the several minutes we verbally attempted to get Mr. ______ to drop the butcher knife and the skillet, it became apparent to me that he might have some type of mental disorder. He kept blinking his eyes forcefully and seemed to be talking to himself in unintelligle words. Suddenly, he suddenly lunged in my direction with the knife raised over his head in the classic stabbing position. Officer ______ who was my backup, immediately fired four shots which struck Mr. _____ in the chest area. His forward momentum continued in my direction and I was barely able to jump back in time to avoid being stabbed as Mr. ______ fell to the floor.


    1. A massive/muscular suspect vs. a small/lean suspect;

    2. As I saw the suspect running from the school building, I could clearly see he was a large, heavily muscled man. As K-9 _____ engaged him in the rear portion of his upper left thigh, he stopped and reached back to grab the K-9. Even though K-9 ____ had a firm grip on his leg, he leaned over and grabbed the Dog by the rear leg and pulled hard enough that K-9 ____ was suspended in the air. I could see that he was attempting to get a better hold on the K-9 and now had one arm around the K-9's lower abdomen, as one might carry a box with one arm. I was alarmed at his ability to withstand the K-9 pain compliance. I immediately realized the K-9 by itself was not sufficient force to subdue the subject and so as I approached him from the rear I discharged my Tazer into the middle of his back. He became rigid and fell forward onto his stomach. I released the stimulation and then he spoke in a very clear and articulate voice, saying "OK, OK, OK, I'm done." I advised him to remain perfectly still with his arms outstretched. He complied and remained in that position for about 10 seconds until Deputy _____ arrived and handcuffed the subject.


    1. A known martial arts expert vs. a known loud-mouth coward;

    2. We had surrounded the subject who beat up the store clerk. Our position was just about in the center of the parking lot. I was standing back with K-9 _____ in case we were needed. Officers ______ and ______ approached the subject from the front and he used some type of martial arts maneuver which caused them to crash into each other and fall backwards. I felt like this person was skilled in hand-to-hand combat as both these officers were also skilled in defensive tactics. Just as Sgt. _____ verbally engaged the subject from the front, I deployed K-9 ____ from the rear. K-9 _____ lunged forward and engaged the subject in the buttocks area with a firm grip. The K-9's momentum knocked the subject to the ground, similar to a football tackle. Myself, Officers ______, ______, and ______ each grabbed his arms and legs, while Sgt. ______ grabbed his head. We were able to secure him and get him cuffed without any further injury. During the entire encounter, K-9 ______ maintained his original grip on the subject.


    1. Threats of death or bodily harm vs. absence of verbalized threats;

    2. Just as I was about to deploy K-9 _______, Officer _____ advised that this subject had made a statement to the effect that he would never go back to prison, even if it meant killing a cop. Immediately, I felt my personal safety was at a much higher risk.


    1. An actively and physically defiant suspect vs. a passively non-compliant suspect;

    2. As I got to place where K-9 _____ had been barking, I could tell this was a closet where the subject had hidden himself. I called K-9 _____ back to me and ordered the subject to slowly open the door and show me his hands. He clearly said, "OK, I'm coming out. Don't let the dog bite me." I responded, "Come out very slowly and carefully and keep your hands where I can see them. As the door opened, I knew this was my most vulnerable point, until I could see his hands.


    1. A suspect with trained attack dogs vs. one without;

    2. The pursuit ended in a driveway of a residence and the driver quickly jumped out of the vehicle. He fled into the house just as I got to the front gate with K-9 Nikki at my side. Suddenly, he re-appeared in the doorway and shouted "Get 'im Dog." A large Pitt Bull Dog exited between his legs, ran up to the gate, and lunged to the top of the gate. As the Pitt Bull Dog got to the top of the gate, I fired two shots point-blank into the dog's chest and neck. It fell dead at my feet and I kicked the gate open. I commanded K-9 Nikki to engage the subject and he did so, knocking the subject off his feet on the front porch. K-9 Nikki strenuously struggled with the subject as I attempted to get to a position of cover. I yelled at the subject to show me his hands but he kept trying to reach for his beltline. This continued for what turned out to be seven minutes, at which time the subject was totally fatigued. He placed his hands straight out and I called K-9 Nikki back to me. Deputy _____ had arrived and effected the arrest control. This is a real incident.


    1. Slow reaching for the belt-line as if to grab something ;

    2. The subject was compliant to my commands to climb out from under the house. I had placed K-9 _____ at a position about eight feet from the edge of the house as a contingency if the subject decided to run or whaever. He kept his hands where I could see them and I felt we would be able to take him into custody without incident. At a certain point, he looked up at me and stopped his movement. He was in a half-crouch position, as he was in the process of standing up. I ordered him to stand up slowly and keeps his hands up. He stared at me and began to move his right hand toward his belt line. I called out loudly, Don't move - don't move." He continued to move his hand slowly and I immediately feared he might be going for a gun or knife. I then commanded K-9 _____ to engage, which he did. K-9 ____ grabbed the subject from behind by the right shoulder and knocked him forward to his knees. At this point, Officer _____ jumped forward and grabbed the subject's right arm in an arm-bar fashion and forced him to the ground. I grabbed the other arm and we quickly handcuffed the subject. K-9 _____ retained his grip on the subject until I commanded him to release and lay down. K-9 _____ obeyed immediately and remained under control as we frisked the subject.


    1. Sudden movement which causes an officer to feel immediate danger;

    2. The driver was facing away from us and walking back toward the sound of Officer _____'s voice. Officer _____ then ordered the other passengers to remain face down on the ground until we called for them one at a time. Officer _____then told the driver to keep coming back. At the exact moment he got to the rear quarter panel of his car, he bolted to his left, across the road, in the direction of the woods. I knew that if he got into the woods he would have a distinct tactical advantage that would greatly increase the risk to the officers who would have to search for him. Knowing that he had a felony firearms warrant, that we would be at a genuine risk if he got to the woods, and that he was actively attempting escape, I commanded K-9 _____ to pursue and engage him. I remained behind cover as K-9 ____ chased and knocked the subject down. He yelled out, "Get the dog off - get 'im off!" I ordered him to show me his hands, which he did. He held them high in the air, as he was on his back. I yelled out, "I'll call the dog off, don't make any moves." I then commanded K-9 ____ to come to the Heel position and the dog responded immedaitely. I was still behind cover. I told Officer ____, "Go ahead and call him to you." Officer ____ did so and the subject complied. Trooper ______ placed handcuffs on the subject and frisked him. We moved to the rear-most vehicle and I checked his injury ....


    1. Sudden hostile or assault behavior which prompts an officer to feel danger;

    2. Deputy _____, K-9 _____ and I were on foot patrol in the park at about 2350 hrs when suddenly a man came running up to us with a wild look in his eyes. He blurted out that the Hell's Angels were after him and they were going to kill him. Deputy _____ tried to calm him down as I held K-9 _____ close to me. The man refused to settle down and then looked directly at K-9 _____. Suddenly, he lunged forward and attempted to kick K-9 _____ while yelling out "Piece of S*** Dog!" It happened so suddenly I was unable to intervene and K-9 ____ grabbed the man by the ankle in mid-kick. The force of the kick lifted K-9 _____ upwards until his front feet were over a foot off the ground. K-9 ____ maintained his grip and I quickly grabbed him by the collar. Simultaneously, Deputy _____ grabbed both of the man's arms from behind in a double-arm-bar. I tactically released K-9 _____ to diminish further tissue damage. I did not see the man's aggression coming and I was completely surprised that he went from being fearful to aggressive, almost spontaneously. I called for EMS to attend to the man's injuries at Deputy ____ held him on the ground. I examined the bite-site and saw there were punctures and also lacerations, the lacerations obviously occurring due to the kicking action. For the next several minutes, we watched the man as we waited for EMS. Sgt. _____ arrived just as the man began screaming out that aliens had abducted his wife and kids.


    1. A computer-flagged suspect who has previously shown hazardous behavior;

    2. As I approached the rear of the vehicle which Trooper ____ had stopped for a traffic violation, dispatch advised a "Delta-Sierra" which is cryptic for a dangerour subject. Trooper ____ looked at the subject, who blurted out, 'What? What the f*** is a Delta-Sierra? You Mother-F***ers better call for some help!' At which point he lunged toward Trooper ____ and took a swing at him. Trooper ____ side-stepped the subject and shoved him forward. The man stumbled and then quickly regained his balance. He stood up and smirked as he said, "OK ... Sons-a-B****es, Gimmee-Some!" The thought flashed through my mind that the combination of the Delta-Sierra message and his current behavior cuased me serious concern for both of our safety. I called out, "Stop, or I'll send my Dog!" He looked at me with a serious glare and said, "C'mon, I'll kill that Sum-B**ch too!" I then command K-9 ____ to engage as a diversion, to give Trooper ____ a chance to gain advantage over the subject. This strategy was successful, as the man was pre-occupied as K-9 ____ engaged his lower abdomen area and Trooper ____ grabbed his arms. I quickly approached and gave K-9 _____ a shut-down command, so the K-9 could not re-engage as we handcuffed and secured the subject.


    1. Multiple suspects to encounter vs. a single suspect;

    2. The four suspects of this burglary must have figured out that the building was being surrounded by the police, as they all exited the same door simultaneously, right in front of Officer ____, me, and K-9 _____. I called out, "Nobody run, or I'll send my K-9." They froze in their tracks and looked around. I then stated in a firm voice, "The first one who runs is gonna get the dog!" I was relieved when they settled down and we were able to take them all into custody without incident.


    1. Group of incited persons vs. a single suspect;

    2. As we two officers and my K-9 confronted the unruly crowd, one of them stepped forward and said, "Let's rush 'em. They can't get us all. At this point I was actually fearful that they would all rush us. They were acting frenzied and shaking their fists at us. The same man then stepped even closer and said, "We're gonna kill you fu**ers." When he did this, Officer _____ grabbed him by the arm and spun him around such that he had him in an arm-bar behind his back. He moved a step backward and I moved a step forward. I now felt very-very vulnerable, even though K-9 _____ was barking and lunging to keep the crowd back. Just then several more officers arrived from behind us and one of the officers gave an order to move the crowd back. We got about three feet apart and began moving forward. All their eyes seemed to be on my K-9 and they began to disperse one and two at a time until they were gone. This is a real incident


    1. Suspect fleeing into residential or inhabited area vs. unpopulated areas;

    2. As I crossed the third fence, I saw the car-jacking suspect trying to pull open the door to the mobile home. I immediately felt serious alarm that he might take the occupants hostage, since he had already abducted one person during the car-jacking. I commanded my K-9 ____ to engage the suspect, which he did. When K-9 _____ made physical contact, it knocked them both off the small landing and into the flower bed next to the mobile home. Apprarently, the fall had knocked the wind out of the man, as he was gasping for breath. I could see his hands had no weapon and I called K-9 _____ back to me. I held the man at gunpoint, it seems for about one minute, until Officer _____ arrived and handcuffed him.


    1. Vision obscured by darkness vs. broad daylight;

    2. This is the perfect reason to read the Judge's ruling in Robinette v. Barnes, in which the burglary suspect was killed by the K-9, yet the Judge exhonerated the Agency, the Handler, and the K-9.


    1. Unfamiliar or uneven terrain vs. otherwise;

    2. Do not fail to articulate the fact that sheds, hot-tubs, shrubbery, etc. which are encountered during a search cause an officer to be critically concerned for personal safety.


    1. Fog, etc. which obscures an officer's vision or hearing;

    2. Make certain to articulate this type of circumstance when it has a negative effect on a Handler's ability to perform safely. A good example is muddy conditions which affect stable footing.


    1. Fumes, smoke or other hazards which diminish an officer's response abilities;

    2. Again, this is a threat element which should be articulated when encountered.


    1. Loud noises which interfere with an officer's hearing abilities;

    2. After we were able to get to the downed and unconscious suspect, I tactically released K-9 ____ and moved him back away from the subject and officers. I didn't understand why he had not released upon my multiple verbal commands, once our officers had neutralized the subject with gunfire. As I took a backup position with the K-9, I spoke his name and he didn't react as if he heard me. I said it loulder and, again, no response. I began to suspect that the multiple gunshots fired at close range by the suspect while K-9 ____ was engaged may have affected his hearing. A hearing test which was administered at the veterinarian's office later that day revealed that K-9_____'s hearing was substantially impacted. The vet suggested this was probably the reason the Dog didn't release on a verbal command.


    1. Close quarters, i.e., halls, crawlspaces, etc., which reduce an officer's movement;

    2. Although we four officers knew the auto theft suspect had crawled under the house, we dared not crawl under there. We didn't know if he was armed and we didn't know what his state of mind was. We issued multiple orders to come out and he just looked at us. It was obvious he could hear us, he just refused to come out. I knelt down behind a brick footing and announced that if he didn't come out, I would send my K-9 in there to extract him. I then had the K-9 bark several times in an effort to motivate him to surrender. When the subject still refused, I suggested to Sgt. _____ that I could place a 50' leash on K-9 ______ and send him in to engage. Once engaged, we could use the leash as a drag-line to get the suspect out. Sgt. _____ stated this was less risky than one or more of us crawling under there. I issued another K-9 Announcement, which was disregarded, prior to deploying K-9 _____. Once I deployed him, K-9 _____ went directly to the subject and engaged on his right forearm. The subject started yelling and struggling against the K-9. wehen we began to pull on the leash, however, his demeanor changed completely. He cried out iin pain and let himself be pulled out from uner the house. He even was crawling in our direction in a effort to diminish the pain. As soon as he came out from under the house, he was taken into custody without further incident. this is a real incident.


    1. Potential sites for assault from a hiding or barricaded suspect,

    2. Review the Judge's ruling in Robinette v. Barnes to see how influential this issue can be to a Judge ... when it is articulated in the report.


    1. The area being searched has a history of serious crime, i.e., medical complex with pharmacies;

    2. This issue is almost a no-brainer. Articulate - Articulate - Articulate.


    1. The area being searched is not familiar to the investigating officer;

    2. Most areas a K-9 Handler is called upon to deploy in are unfamiliar. This places us iin a distinct disadvantage, not knowing the "lay of the land." Do not fail to articulate the influence this has on a handler's personal concern for safety.


    1. Lighting conditions which favor a hiding or barricaded suspect;

    2. this is a critical tactical issue, which if not articulated, is not likely to be perceived by a Judge or a Jury member. They do not live by tactical farmes of mind and must be enlightened as the the risks associated with being silhouetted.


    1. Large/muscular officer vs. small/lean officer;

    2. Especially, if a K-9 Handler is not a former Fullback, articulate the influence of the officer's physical prowess or lack thereof may have in a search or a capture. This is critical!


    1. The lack of or availability of cover for the K-9 Handler or backup officers;

    2. K-9 _____ tracked up to a position directly at the corner of a house which had a large shrub. I could tell by K-9 ____'s behavior that he was in the scent cone of a target. I quickly assessed my options for a position of cover and realized I had none. I was in the wide open space in front of this shrub. I felt totally vulnerable and felt inner-conflict as to whether I should retreat or not. I motioned to my two backup officers that a target was in the shrubbery. One immediately focused his shotgun on the shrubbery, while the other shined his flashlight on the location. I remained in the dark, behind the light and announced in a loud voice, "_______ Sheriff's Office, sound off or I'll send in my police dog and you may be bitten." There was no response, but I could tell by my K-9's posture that he indeed had a target and it was very close. I announced again, "This is your last chance. Sound off or I'm going to send in my police dog and you may be bitten." Again, no response. I then commanded K-9 ______ to engage and he entered the shrubs. He had not gone in even a full body length when I heard a young female's voice shrieking. She jumped up to a standing position and I could see that K-9 _____ had a solid grip on her upper thigh, just inches below her pubic area. She had no weapon in her hands and I immediately called K-9 _____ back to me and he promptly responded. I recognized the female as the suspect who had lured the robbery victim into a dark shadowy location, with the lure of a sexual encounter but instead into the waiting arms of her accomplices who robbed him at knife point. This is a re-cration of a real incident.


    1. The lack of or availability of backup;

    2. The track was initiated at the point in front of the library where the victim was ambushed by her assailant. This is approximately 50' east from the corner of _____ and _____ streets. There is a large bush along the sidewalk, and it is here that the victim states the rapist grabbed her and drug her behind the bush. She was able to describe his face quite clearly as she remained motionless while he held the knife to her throat. She also states she very clearly saw him flee from the bush and he headed in the direction of a water fountain in the grassy area next to the libary. I briefed Deputy ______ and Trooper _____ on their functions as my backups on this track. I instructed them to stay close behind me and not to get in front. I further told them that if we encountered the suspect, they should make first verbal contact as an attempt to take him into custody. If he refused, I would then engage him verbally. Lastly, I told them that if we encountered deadly force, they should, of course, react as the situation dictates. I gave K-9 _____ the track command and she began sniffing intensely. We moved in the direction of the water fountain, just as the victim said. the track continued for approximately 300 yards until I heard a rustle in the large bushes ahead of me, which were next to a brick building. I halted, as did K-9 ____, and we both focused forward. I then heard no verbal challenges from my backup officers but was fearful of looking back to see what they were doing. I heard more rustling sounds and then saw a shoe in a gap at the bottom of the foliage. After another two seconds, perhaps, I gave a lawful order "Police, Stand Still." I had the leash in one hand and my handgun in the other. K-9 ____ dropped into a down position upon my lawful order and I moved to the low-ready position with my handgun. Suddenly, gunshots erupted from behind the bush. I was initially startled and then reflexively returned fire, aiming at the flashes of muzzle-blast I could see. I fired multiple rounds before noticing there were no more shots being fired in my direction. K-9 ____ had stood up but remained in place. I noticed a large tree in my peripheral vision and lunged to get behind it. This all happened in a time-frame of about five seconds. I quickly inserted a fresh magazine and looked for my backup officers. I didn't see them anywhere and held my position as I called over my portable radio that shots were fired at my position. Within a minute or so, my backup officers arrived at the tree and I held my position as they circled around the other side of the building. Sgt. ____ and another officer arrived within about a minute and they all positions of cover as best they could. Sgt. ____ announced to the subject to toss out the weapon but there was no response. After another minute or so, they all moved in unison toward the location and discovered the shooter collapsed in the shrubbery. This is a combination of two similar actual incidents.

UPOA 2011 K-9 Pages - Expert Witness Pages - Main Page

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